This essay is primarily concerned with the production of artistic knowledge in curatorial projects and seeks to formulate a definition of the curator as a collaborator that is filtered through the notion of alienation in Marxist philosophy. In his famous “Manuscripts of 1844”, German philosopher Karl Marx theorises the concept of alienation as the separation of labour from the worker, and also as the separation of the products of labour from the worker (Marx and Engels, 1964). Within this essay, we will aim to present a critical perspective on curatorial ethics, and define curating as a mode of collaboration towards creating a mutually beneficial experience for everyone. We will focus on the role of the curator as a creator and collaborator in relation to the ever-changing dynamics of contemporary capitalism. The essay will also explore some of the methodologies curators apply in collaborative projects; from project structures to the level of critical and professional engagement with multiple teams and the audience. We will review some examples of contemporary curatorial projects such as “fig-1” and “fig-2”, and “Coalesce” to establish a better understanding of the notion of collaboration according to the concept of alienation.
Within this essay, we will also argue that curating has become much more than simply caring for or displaying artworks to explore how contemporary curation has come to signify something entirely different than its historical root–which was about caring for a collection. In the beginning chapters, the essay will investigate the role and responsibilities of the curator and look at how contemporary curation has evolved over the years. We will discuss the ways which today’s curators are reaching beyond the walls of museums and institutions. In addition, we will look at the changes curatorship has been through, and how the term curator has been challenged and renegotiated through collaborative projects. We will examine the role of the curator as it has been analysed by theorists, including Paul O’Neill, Maria Lind and Mark Hutchinson who have been extensively quoted throughout this essay. For example, curator Mark Hutchinson argues that the contemporary curator must become a collaborator by creating a “dialogical relationship with artists” (O’Neill, 2007). Whereas, curator Maria Lind’s explains how the term collaboration is often confused with cooperation (Billing, Lind and Nilsson, 2007). Towards the end, this essay will expand upon Hutchinson’s ideas on contemporary capitalism and the curator’s responsibilities within capitalist systems. We will conclude by alluding, again, to Hutchinson to emphasise an egalitarian curatorial ethics in the production of artistic knowledge.
Curator as a Creative
This part of the essay will look at the value exchange between the curator and the number of teams and individual minds that create holistic experiences for the audience in the form of public exhibitions. Departing from our conceptualisation of the role of the curator as a collaborator, we will argue that curators need to connect with the artists, other curators, and community groups involved in their projects. We will suggest, besides holding organisational skills, curators have to be communicative and naturally collaborative. The following paragraphs will look at the curator as a multi-tasker, a creative and an effective communicator.
Artist and curator Carolee Thea very broadly characterises the contemporary curator as someone who translates artists’ works and provides a context for public understanding. She adds that curators are those, who create using other artists’ work as their raw material (Thea, Micchelli, and Obrist, 2010). In Thea’s definition, the curator creates a context to showcase the art in its best light to engage the audience and cultural communities actively with art and ideas. As a result of this, curators often carry an immense responsibility since they are the designers of a perceptive and cognitive experience. According to Thea, curators need to work with their raw material to devise this experience, akin to artists. This form of artistic sensibility thus makes the experience more significant and engaging for many.
Similarly, curator Sune Nordgren highlights the creative aspect of curating by stating that without the creative process the curator’s role would be reduced to that of a mere “assistant”, who follows the artist around and carry out their instructions (Hiller and Martin, 2003). Nordgren fully accepts the fact that artists have their own visions and ideas they wish to express through exhibiting their works. However, he also acknowledges that the curator tries to create something new while taking every factor into consideration such as the budget and the exhibition space. Both Thea and Nordgren addressing the creative aspect of curating help us further emphasise the curator’s expansive role as a creative.
Furthermore, curator Paul O’Neill points out to an inevitable merging of the role of the artist with the role of curator by stating that many artists today are trying to expand their practice into the field of curating (O’Neill, 2012). According to O’Neill, curating thematic group exhibitions is now an accepted model of artistic production. As a result, in addition to being described in these paragraphs as creatives and organisers, curators need to develop their entrepreneurial and interpersonal skills. They must also deepen their familiarity with the wider range of contemporary media, science, politics, sociology, aesthetics and philosophy by and large to become adept in various fields.
Curating, whether institutional or independent, is inherently a multi-tasking job which requires carrying numerous responsibilities for different teams to achieve a unified goal–building a multiplicity of relationships along the way. Such intentional exchange of skills, values, knowledge and ideas is commonly referred to as ‘working together’ as a group. What, then, makes working together any different than a collaboration? The following section of the essay will try to create a definition of collaboration built upon the Marxist theory of capitalist mode of production and the idea of mutual aid.
Curator as a Collaborator
The following paragraphs will discuss the difference between working together and collaborating. Curator and writer Maria Lind argues that collaboration is an open- ended concept, an umbrella term for various working methods which include more than two participants (Billing, Lind and Nilsson, 2007). Cooperation, however, suggests an equally mutual benefit gained through working together. She emphasises that the word “cooperation” is often used interchangeably with collaboration. For the sake of clarity in this essay, we will continue to use the word collaboration whenever referred to cooperation, i.e. mutual benefit.
Collaborating in arts and curating diminishes the hierarchical systems of creating and constraining specialised knowledge. From a historical perspective, the curator is often regarded as the master of a trade. Even in the contemporary world, Mark Hutchinson argues that acknowledging the curator as a master of selection and display is still a common tendency (O’Neill, 2007). Collaborating and co-creating with others undermine and threaten the historically established norm of the ruling class monopolising artistic skills and knowledge. In non-hierarchically inclined collaborations, the value is not only developed more fundamentally, but it is also distributed and integrated evenly. This essay, thus, focuses on sharing as the quintessential quality of any form of artistic and curatorial collaboration.
There is no denying that curators and artists contribute tremendously to the production of knowledge and cultural values. However, in a society operating within capitalist market economies, such production of knowledge could be subject to criticism from the perspective of the Marxist philosophy. Thus, it seems appropriate to approach knowledge as a form of a commodity since it possesses similar characteristics to public goods and is certainly prone to commodification. In mechanistic models of production, every worker contributes to a small part of the process, only bit by bit. Although the result is achieved via working together as a group, the level of active engagement within this group and the sense ownership of the final product remain questionably low. In such modes of production, every contributor completes only a fraction of the whole job. Marx suggests that they eventually become alienated to their own products (Marx and Engels, 1964). In other words, they do not have a holistic view of their creation nor their labour processes. In the era of Web 2.0 and through the rise of web-based knowledge markets–in which knowledge is no longer produced mechanically–the sense of alienation still grows exponentially due to digital platforms rendering the knowledge production process transparent and the product anonymous. This section of the essay will suggest that collaborative curating should aim to focus on how everyone contributing in a project internalise the entire process. This collaborative process should ultimately enhance the sense of ownership of knowledge produced throughout one’s participation, alleviating alienation, and allowing a safe space for mutual gain.
Interestingly, Mark Hutchinson points out to a recent ontological shift in contemporary capitalism. He argues that the link between the commodity and its image is turned on its head. In other words, the product is now superseded by its own image, for example brands, names, and designers. He states that companies like Nike, for instance, no longer hold the means of production as most modern day corporations utilise outsourcing. These companies do not produce physical products anymore. What they sell, however, is an image, a promise, a status, or an idea. In contemporary capitalism, the focus seems to have shifted from production of things to production of ideas. How, then, should curators position themselves inside these bubbles which oscillate between academia, institutionalism, idea-driven capitalism, and its divisions? Hutchinson sees “independence” from all of these structures as a viable solution. He argues, however, that it is not possible to be independent as an individual curator. He writes “If dependence is about the relationship one has with others, then so is independence. Independence must be a collaborative project” (O’Neill, 2007). He adds that the curation that is “sure of itself” actually lacks the self- awareness to be critical of its own systems and agencies. A non-critical curator then goes on to regurgitate and perpetuate the established norms within cultural capitalism. Thus the field of curation should be undoubtedly self-aware and critical. In this context, according to Hutchinson, curators have to enter into a “mutual and dialogical relationship with artists” (O’Neill, 2007). This particular relationship constitutes the core of the notion “curator as a collaborator” this essay tries to postulate.
Collaboration in contemporary curation should be, therefore, analysed not through the visible form and the practical methods but the contributing groups’ level of engagement and the ways knowledge is disseminated within these groups, and also outside of them. Collaborating is an issue of depth and breadth which is not about getting a large number of parties involved but about what these parties each gain, and whether or not this benefit is equally nourishing to all. Curating, as a job role, as mentioned above, naturally requires working together with groups of people. It is, however, insufficient to claim that the curator is always a collaborator as a result of merely liaising with different teams. Collaboration must be acknowledged as a curatorial vision and ethical integrity. A collaborative practice thus aims to create knowledge out of equal engagement and seeks to distribute it within society fairly–– to include those who historically were not enabled access due to racial and class monopoly on knowledge as commodity. The critical attitude is to promote engagement and to steer away from the Marxist estrangement. From the beginning stages of a curatorial project to its reception by the public, collaborative models should preserve this vision and aim for deeper engagement. In this respect, collaborating becomes an ethical responsibility of the curator.
Curation becomes less and less of a specialised profession whilst the egalitarian models of collaboration open the doors to a wider discussion about the production of contemporary culture. The ideas discussed in this section recognise the curator as a vital element in today’s society. Contemporary curators are not only great communicators, organisers, multi-taskers and co-creators but they are also morally responsible for equally distributing the knowledge that they play a part in creating.
Collaborative Time and Space
Continuing on the Marxist reading of the production of knowledge, this part of the essay will focus on the space in which the culture is created and look at how the nature of a certain space helps equally distribute knowledge. In this instant, we will focus on autonomous, pop-up platforms as an alternative to institutionalised art spheres.
“fig-1” and “fig-2”
Independent curator and co-founder of “fig-1” Mark Francis states that back in early 2000’s, although there was no shortage of arts, the London art scene lacked a sense of vitality. He mentions that the vast majority of the exhibitions in the city were usually taking place within museums and other institutions. This was when he came up with the idea of organising a series of weekly exhibitions in an abandoned Soho warehouse––which is since demolished due to a cross-rail project (Wroe 2015). His aim was to condense the magnitude of the cultural activity in London within a small, experimental art space. There would be no commercial pressures, and the shows were meant to be purely experimental with no determined physical outcome in mind. He felt that there was limited freedom with larger exhibitions hence artists and curators needed a better platform to experiment. He invited artists from all stages in their careers to test out ideas that they would not otherwise have the opportunity to present in museums and galleries. Non-hierarchical spirit of this project meant that everyone could access the space without an invitation or a familiarity of the art world. Francis recollects the day Kate Moss and Alexander McQueen showed up and mixed in with the crowd of young students and emerging artists (Art Fund, 2015). He also encouraged established artists to create works alongside up-and-coming talent. “fig-1” operated outside of the early 21st century conventions of disseminating knowledge. It adopted a collaborative mode of production and distribution of knowledge via innovative and engaging processes. As a curatorial methodology, bringing together creatives within different stages of their career highlights an attitude of sharing one’s experiences and skills whilst expressing a desire for fairness.
The London-based Turkish curator Fatos Ustek is mostly known for her 2015 project “fig-2”, which acted as a revival of the exhibiting structure of “fig-1”. She adopted the pop-up exhibition style originally demonstrated in “fig-1” by organising fifty solo exhibitions for fifty consecutive weeks at ICA in London, a space which was originally conceived as a hub for artists, writers, and scientists alike to discuss progressive ideas outside of the Royal Academy. Ustek’s project displayed a non-stop turnover of exhibitions and collaborations. Consequently, “fig-2” has quickly become a playground for ideas in a city like London where there is a rigid categorisation of art wrapped around big institutions. Thus “fig-2” has been perceived as a much-needed hotbed for creative experimentation and risk-taking (Wroe 2015).
“fig-2” too was experimental in its nature and programmed only a few weeks in advance to maintain spontaneity. “fig-2” opened every Monday from 6-8pm throughout 2015 at ICA. The format used “change” as a constant with fifty successive exhibitions on a weekly basis. “fig-2”, however, this time, aimed to offer a more multi-disciplinary platform than its predecessor. The rapid change of styles and ideas demonstrated in each and every exhibit became a catalyst to produce ideas around this uncertainty and a state of intended incompleteness. Such was an inevitable result of putting dancers, architects, artists, writers, and designers in one creative space. The project certainly kept London contemporary art scene on its toes as art lovers awaited a fresh change every week. Ever since then, the “pop-up space” has become an integral part of the contemporary art world in the UK. This type of collaboration undoubtedly helped cross-pollinate various disciplines of art, science, and literature. Recently many art spaces have adopted the curatorial model of “fig-1” and “fig-2”. One notable example is the annual programming of the North East contemporary art institution Baltic 39 in Newcastle upon Tyne. Baltic 39’s six weeks long “Figure” series offer exhibition opportunities for artists working across all media to test out works and ideas, or to develop works in progress within a public context. Each selected artist, group or duo get a week to exhibit; artists, at the same time, are actively encouraged to collaborate and create out of their comfort zone.
“Coalesce: The Remix”
“Coalesce: The Remix” was a collaborative curatorial project envisioned by the curator and writer Paul O’Neill in 2005. This project consisted of a four-week “take over” of an art space in London to realise weekly exhibitions ranging from interventions, public meetings and lectures, publications, and nightclub events with video screenings and DJ sets. O’Neill described Coalesce as an on-going “exhibitionary” project, a living and transformative cross-disciplinary platform bringing together painting, video, and text work in migration (O’Neill, 2005). The aim for the artists were to co-habit with one other, overlapping and interweaving in the gallery space to feed off of each other, eventually fusing into a bigger whole. In other words, the artists and the audience were expected to grow together.
Every week, the “space” was curated by a different curator or a collective group, responding to the past instalments, and building upon previously produced knowledge. For example, the third week was curated Dave Beech, and Mark Hutchinson, who was quoted earlier in this essay. Two curators worked together to initiate a special issue of the journal “The First Condition”. They invited the audience as well as all artists who involved in the project to contribute to the journal. All contributions were encouraged to directly respond to the concerns, ideas and the discourse arising from the Coalesce project in real time. The journal was entirely text-based and as well as having been printed out as a photocopied booklet; the audience-created content was also published on the journal’s website.
Week four, on the other hand, was designed by the collective named TemporaryContemporary. The group organised three, three-day long poker games in which the curators played the role of the dealer, whereas the artists stood in for gamblers (Tempcontemp, 2005). This playful collaborative event was intended to be a re-enactment of the power systems within socialised culture production. The game forced the players to create strategies and negotiations similar to the competitive play of the art world. The gallery was transformed into a poker lounge with drinks tables and rest areas. The rest areas were provided with the written material and the documentation accumulated over the previous weeks of the project in the same space.
Following Marx’s footsteps, the inherently gestalt structure of the Coalesce project provides an excellent foundation for the organic production of knowledge and its equal distribution. With every week’s content directly built upon the pillars of the previous, the project managed to keep all individuals, past or present, engaged in a timeless dialogue: the very “dialogical relationship” which Hutchinson was quoted stating earlier in the essay. In this model, participants not only directly involve in the production process but they also become the consumer themselves, hence successfully escape the alienating effects of knowledge production.
The difference between an improvised work and a more thoroughly structured one, Maria Lind suggests, is that the former encourages a collective ownership whereas the latter is about shared but individual experiences (Billing, Lind and Nilsson, 2007). The time element also plays a big role in developing these collaborations. All of the examples above consisted of projects aimed at accelerated change and instant creation of ideas. How people work on a short-term basis is drastically different than how they behave in slow-paced, drawn-out environments. The freshness of the aforementioned projects tend to come from the necessity of having to spread one’s attention spontaneously without prioritising one thing over the other. In this sense, it can be argued that rapid-paced collaborations may contribute to the non-hierarchical and heterogeneous models of knowledge/value production.
Throughout this essay, we aimed to interrogate the definition of ‘curator’ through unpacking some arguments by contemporary critics. In the early stages of our thesis, we established a viewpoint that whether referred to as a creative, an organiser or a collaborator, the curator has an undeniably central role within the systems of knowledge production. The main body of this essay examined the process of cultural production in the light of the socialist philosophy of Karl Marx. We looked at the modes of curating which enable holistic knowledge production, its fair distribution, and conscious consumption. We suggested that curator has an ethical responsibility to be collaborative. A widely used term, collaboration, in this context, mostly meant cooperation which provides an equally mutual gain for all parties involved.
Many reasons push people to work together and create a mutually beneficial ethic. Likewise, many modes of cultural production exist, which promote sharing and generosity as opposed to market driven approaches. For example “fig-1” aimed to provide a concentrated and fast-paced experience of art which was easily accessible by everyone. Whereas, “fig-2″–borrowing an already existing collaborative model– created a bridge between the disciplines such as dance, theatre and visual arts. A more successful collaborative experiment, however, was envisioned by Paul O’Neill in his “Coalesce: Remix” project. In this project, knowledge was created through a gestalt system, continuously building upon previous experiences and actively encouraging the audience to play a central part in this experience.
In conclusion, we state that it is the curator’s responsibility to have an ethical approach to collaborative curating. However, collaboration on its own is not necessarily a positive and a viable method of producing knowledge. Collaboration without cooperation is merely working together for the same goal. We argue that collaboration is a part of the job definition of a curator who naturally meditates and liaises between groups; whereas cooperation is the key element in a curatorial practice which aims for a deeper engagement and is critical of its own agencies. Only through co-creating with others, producing and distributing knowledge evenly could the field of curation expand out of the contemporary individualism and the systems within cultural capitalism.
Sheyda A. Khaymaz
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